Click on an option below to access. Log out of ReadCube. It draws attention to the intractability of difference, insisting that the terrorism of has complex transnational antecedents. Realist approaches to international order have become part of a problem to be overcome through further intellectual debate.
Volume 49 , Issue 3. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Alex J. Bellamy The University of Queensland Search for more papers by this author.
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Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. It unearthed a myriad of complex links among security firms, mining houses and mining concessions Harker Sandline International, a big private security company, was involved in the conflict that pitted President Kabbah against the rebels. It provided weapons and skills to the forces loyal to Kabbah who had been ousted by his own military in May Harker While the recent conflict — provides the immediate context for the expansion of private security provision, the use of private security has a long history in Sierra Leone.
The example of Sierra Leone indicates how rulers of weak states use apparent weakness as a political resource, standing on its head the Weberian notion that state viability is proportional to its claim on a monopoly on violence Reno a Sierra Leonean leaders privatised violence and outsourced the accumulation of wealth and the disciplining of wayward politicians and social groups to reliable foreigners. As long as weak states and their weak leaders continue to accommodate foreign financiers and fighters as an alternative security measure, it will remain very hard for Africa to speak with one voice on the issue of regulation of the private security sector.
The private security sector is vital to the security of leaders of weak states who use more reliable foreign mining firms and foreign private mercenary armies to marginalise threatening local strong men. Recent years have seen growing concern over the proliferation and growth of the private security sector in Africa.
Africa was familiar with isolated colonial mercenaries who were hired by colonial regimes to fight against liberation movements. Post-Cold War Africa has awaken to the reality of highly organised, corporate type companies that provide military and police services to any entity able to pay for the services.
This reality dawned in tandem with the post-Cold War liberalisation and privatisation processes. African states that, like any other state, had enjoyed a degree of control over the means and resources of violence are now challenged directly by the proliferation and growth of the private security sector. As a result of this development that has caught Africa napping and without a ready legal framework to deal with and regulate it, serious efforts are being made to determine the causes of this proliferation and growth as well as innovative ways to regulate it. The present study focused on how weak states and their rulers have deliberately invited the private security sector to be part of their innovative strategies for survival and compensation for weakness.
The leaders of Angola, Sierra Leone, DRC and other weak states are well known for inviting private military forces to prop up their precarious position. In the face of the reality that some African leaders rely heavily on these private military providers for their survival, the option to abolish the private security sector is ruled out.
Sabelo Gumedze noted that for any effective regulation of the private security sector, must be preceded by research to determine the extent of this sector, the impact of the privatisation of security on vulnerable groups, the advantages and disadvantages associated with the sector, possibilities of partnership between private and public security bodies, the impact of the private security sector on the African security architecture, and the extent of mercenary presence and operations in Africa.
This article added the element of how weak states and their rulers invite mercenaries to Africa and how they factor in this sector in their survival tactics and strategies. This is very important because as long as rulers of weak states regard the private security sector as a prop rather than a danger to their power they will not cooperate with efforts to regulate the sector. As long as these customers of the private security sector exist, its proliferation and growth will continue unabated.
African leaders need to consider seriously how the existence of weak states constitutes a security issue in Africa, much as Westerners view poverty and underdevelopment in Africa as constituting fertile ground for terrorist recruitment. Countries such as the US and Britain consider the weak or failing African state extremely dangerous to international peace and security.
However, African leaders seem unconcerned about weak states as a direct enticement to the entry, proliferation and growth of the private security sector in Africa. The Additional Protocol to the Geneva Convention of 12 August provides an exhaustive definition of a mercenary. Its definition contains six criteria: a mercenary is any person who a is specifically recruited locally or abroad to fight in an armed conflict; b does, in fact, take direct part in the hostilities; c is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by desire for private gain and, is promised, by or on behalf of a party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that promised or paid to combatants of similar ranks and functions in the armed forces of that party; d is neither a national of a party to conflict nor a resident of a territory controlled by a party to the conflict; e is not a member of the armed forces of a party to the conflict; and f has not been sent by a state which is not a party to conflict on official duty as a member of its armed forces.
As Sierra Leone has reconstituted itself and is on the road to recovery from conflict, it has since put in place legislation aimed at regulating the operations of the private security sector. Abrahamsen, R Alternatives , 55— Abrahamsen, R and Williams, W C Country report: Sierra Leone: the globalisation of private security.
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